The full name of this country is the Commonwealth of Australia. This country has no land border; it’s surrounded by Pacific Ocean in east, Indian Ocean in west, Southern ocean in south, several seas and Gulfs in north.
Australia has 25760 KM border that is entirely maritime border. This country is the sixth largest country in the world with 850/686/7 square kilometers area. It’s 6/4 times larger than Iran.
Australia has two centuries history of commonwealth that gained its independence in 1901.
It’s now the second largest country of the commonwealth.
Australia has no state religion and everyone can freely practice their religion.
According to the latest census in January 2010 the total population is 22 million. The south-eastern coast has greater population density than the rest of the country.
The official language is English with Australian accent and some Australian aboriginal words are entered. There is a little difference in accent of different areas. Other languages like Italian, Chinese are common among of immigrants.
Australia has six states and two territories which have less authority than states.
Canberra is capital of Australia.
Australia’s states and territories include:
- New South Wales (NSW) and its capital is Sydney
- Queensland (QLD) that its capital is Brisbane
- South Australia (SA) and its capital is Adelaide
- Tasmania(TAS) that its capital is Hobart
- Victoria(VIC) and its capital is Melbourne
- Western Australia (WA) that its capital is Perth
- Northern Territory (NT) and its centre is Darwin
- The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) that’s including Canberra and its surrounding.
Australia is a large island located in Pacific Ocean. It has about 7,600,000 square kilometers area.
The highest point on the Australian mainland is 2228 meters above sea level. The lowest point is Lake Eyre which is 15 meters below sea level.
Its longest river is Darling with 2700 Km length, it combine with Murray River and goes to Southern ocean.
Australia has a wide variety of landscape, with dry desert in the center, tropical rainforest and mountainous area in the coastal border. The coral reefs are Australia’s most amazing scenery.
Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. It is home to more than one 755 species of plants and animals, many of which are found nowhere else in the world, and less than half have been described scientifically.
Australia is a developed and wealthy country with an economy reliant on trade and agriculture.
According to Economist Intelligence Unit, four cities of Australia are among of the world’s 10 best cities to live: Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth
Major products of Australia are sugarcane, cotton, grain and meat.
With abundant resources and skilled professionals, Australia is a leader in the global mining industry and the largest products are bauxite, iron, zinc, nickel and gold.
Australia is also a major supplier of energy like coal, natural gas and uranium.
China, Japan, South Korea and The United State of America are the Australia’s largest trading partners. In fact The Australia’s economy is tied to Asia.
Australia’s Human Development Index value is very high and position this country at 2 out of 188 countries in the world.
Politics and Government:
Australia is a country of Commonwealth. It is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia.
The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor- General at the federal level and by Governors at the state level.
Governor-General and Parliament are in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
Although Governor-General has many authorities but Prime minister has the executive power in Australia. In fact Governor-General has a formal constitutional and ceremonial role.
In Australia, People elect member of parliaments first, and then the leader of political party with the majority in the House of Representatives will be chosen as a Prime minister.
The federal government is separated into three branches:
- The legislature
- The executive
- The judiciary
Art has a unique insight in Australia which represents its incredibly diverse culture. Australian cities are full of art buildings, galleries, and theatres. Sydney Opera House is one of the famous buildings in Australia which was built by some of the best architects in the twentieth century and is considered to be one of the masterpieces of the world architecture.
Opera, ballet, symphony orchestra, actors, playwrights, art companies, etc., are supported by the Australian government.
One of the most favorite activities done by most Australians is going to the cinema and watch movies. As a result, cinema theatres in Australia have a great prosperity. Australian artists such as Nicole Kidman, Heath Ledger, and Tony Colt have worked in the film industries and have great respect in the world cinema.
Since Australia is a big country, the numbers of radio stations are very high and most of the small towns also have one or more local radio stations.
SBS (Special Broadcasting Service) is the only government radio station in Australia and from 1992 the Persian section of this radio has been launched.
Sports, news, game shows and TV shows produced internationally or locally are the most watched television programs in Australia.
Australian Indigenous music has social and spiritual themes and is the oldest form of music that is present in Australia. European music which includes Capella music was introduced in Australia during the British settlements. Many popular music stars and conductors from around the world regularly travel to Australia to do their music performances. Australia collects donations for the world music through the unique and beautiful voices of Nelly Melba and John Sutherland.
With the high number of professional sports leagues in Australia, it can be said that sport is a national obsession to Australians, and Melbourne is one of the Australian cities that is famous for organizing various international sports competitions.
Popular sports that are played as a team in Australia are:
Rugby, Australian football (a type of rugby that is also known as footy), cricket, and basketball.
In addition, the national Australian field hockey team, water polo, and women beach volleyball are among the best teams in the world. Australia is also very good at some sports that are played individually, such as golf, swimming and other water sports, tennis, and squash courts.
In recent years, this country is trying to improve its sports facilities and its recognition internationally, and since 1990 some of the Australian football players have played in the England Premier League.
Australia hosted the 1956 and the 2000 Olympics in Melbourne and in Sydney respectively. This country is one of the six countries that have been hosted more than once for the summer Olympics.
The Australian Olympic players are from all age groups and in the past Olympics, they were most successful in swimming, athletics, rowing, cycling and horse riding.
Australia had its most success in the Sydney Olympic, winning a total of 58 medals (including 16 gold) from twenty different types of sports.
The Australian Open international competition, which is held annually in Melbourne, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments.